Estimation of total protein in serum - liver function tests



    Liver Function Tests
    Estimation of total protein in serum
    Estimation of total protein in serum

    Introduction
    • Total protein make about 7 % of body weight
    • Blood proteins includes albumin , globulins , fibrinogen , regulatory proteins and other types
    • Total protein test measures the total amount of two classes of proteins in blood (albumin and globulin)
    • Albumin is synthesized by liver using dietary proteins and removed from blood by kidney
    • All plasma proteins are synthesized in the liver except Ȣ - globulins , there are different types of globulin called alpha , beta and gamma globulins , Ȣ - globulin made by immune system
    • Amino acids are the building block of proteins , in turn proteins are the building block of cells and body tissues



    Principle
    • Total protein test depend on Biuret method for determination of protein concentration
    • Biuret reagent is made of NaOH , KOH , and CuSO4 together with Na – K tartarate 
    • It is a blue reagent turns to violet in presence of protein in alkaline medium
    Normal range
    • Total protein : 6.5 – 8 g %
    Reagents
    • CuSO4 : color reagent
    • NaOH , KOH , Na – K tartarate : alkaline medium (working solution)
    • Standard protein

    Procedure
    Reagent
    Test
    Standard
    Blank
    Serum
    1 ml
    -
    -
    St- protein
    -
    1 ml
    -
    Water
    -
    -
    1 ml
    Working solution
    2.5 ml
    2.5 ml
    2.5 ml
    Mix , stand for 5 min , then read at 546 nm

    Serum total protein level increased in:
    • Dehydration
    • Chronic infection or inflammation as virus C , B
    • Hemolysis
    Serum total protein level decreased in:
    • Malnutrition or malabsorption
    • Liver disease
    • Glomerulonephritis


    Notes
    • Total protein = serum albumin + serum globulin
    • Serum globulin (g %) = total protein (g %) – serum albumin (g %)
    Normal range of globulins: 2.8 – 3.2 g %

    Serum globulins level increased in:
    • Liver disease
    • Infection
    • Kidney disease
    Serum globulins level decreased in:
    • Liver dysfunction (α , β globulins)
    Ratio of albumin / globulin > 1
    • It must be greater than 1
    • Increased in high protein in diet
    • Deceased in liver dysfunction

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